A Conceptual Study On Intentions to adopt Digital Startups among Women entrepreneurs
Master Of Commerce, Pondicherry University
The rapid sophistication in technology and increased internet connectivity is opening up a new platform for women entrepreneurship. Nowadays Digital platforms can be considered as one of the safest places to raise a new business. The digital platform also provides a space for idea exchange and community feedback. In our country, online business enterprises are increasing day by day. Because of the minimum investment concept, women entrepreneurs have also changed their traditional avenues and adopting digital startups. Here in this study, we are making a conceptual approach to find out the intentions behind the adoption of digital start-ups.
Now, everyday encounters don’t divert women from attaining their goals as the environs as well as the situation is getting more safe and generous for them. Encouraging economic policies along with the initiation of the latest communication technologies are opening an innovative platform and entryways for aspiring women leaders in the digital market. Encircled by a multitude of entrepreneurship chances, women in the era of digital start-up revolution are giving severe competition to their male counterparts. The digital ecosphere has given women entrepreneurs so many opportunities to develop the female spirit, intellect, talent, and creativity, and transform their ideas into reality. The digital media revolution allows women entrepreneurs to run businesses entirely on the Internet and provide flexibility in their schedules by introducing virtual jobs and a digital lifestyle.
II. CONCEPT OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR
Every woman is a female entrepreneur who starts, organizes and runs a company to achieve economic independence individually or in collaboration, keeping up with her personal life, family life, and social life. The GOI has defined a female entrepreneur as “a female-owned and controlled enterprise with a minimum financial contribution of 51% in capital and giving women at least 51% of jobs in the enterprise.”
III. CONCEPT OF DIGITAL STARTUPS
In recent years, the rapid emergence of digital technology, such as social media, big data, cloud computing, mobile has dominated the enterprise process. Startups that like to innovate and take advantage of opportunities that have an application of recent technology are known as digital start-ups. Digital start-ups can be defined as "any attempt or start-up to make a profit using information technology for business purposes". Digital startups use digital technology intensively to create new digital business models, improve business operations, engage customers and stakeholders through digital channels, and emphasize business information.
Successful Women Digital Entrepreneurs in India
Suchita Salwan is the Founder and CEO of “Little Black Book”, an online portal which helps us to know about the various local business and it covers the wide variety of categories like food, shopping, events and activities through community feedback and recommendations.
Sakshi Talwar is the co-founder of Rugs and Beyond which can be framed as one of the largest e-tailor of stylish handcrafted Rugs and carpets.
Sairee Chahal is the Founder and CEO of SHEROES the largest platform which provides various services like resource sharing, offering support and interactions via Sheroes App and Sheroes.com.
Sabina Chopra is the co-founder of Yatra.com which fulfills the needs of travelers and also yatra is one of India’s most popular travel portal.
Limeroad is another online lifestyle shop which mainly targets women audience and it is founded by Suchi Mukherjee.
Richa Kar is the founder and CEO of Zivame. Zivame is India’s popular linger shop for women.
Aditi Gupta is the CEO of Menstrupedia. Menstrupedia is a web portal that plays a vital role in educating women about menstrual health and hygiene.
Shradha Sharma Founder and CEO of Your story which provides a media platform for the entrepreneurial system.
Rashi Menda is the Founder and CEO of Zapyle- It can be framed as the terminal online portal for grandeur fashion materials in India.
Falguni Nayar is the Founder and CEO of Nykaa , a multi-branded online cosmetic store based in Mumbai.
Literature Review and Model Development
The technology and digital platforms are developing rapidly and the development of digital media platforms is attracting women entrepreneurs to setup digital start-ups. The promotion schemes and other government efforts are also playing a vital role in developing women entrepreneurship (Prakash Goyal, 2011). Babu 2015 in his study found that the rural avenues for developing women entrepreneurship are limited. Social intelligence and communication skills acquired by women entrepreneurs have greater importance in the digital economy (Ramesh, 2013). Pareek 1992 found that women entrepreneurs have a significant role in socio-economic development.
Unified theory on Acceptance and Use of Technology model
Unified theory on Acceptance and Use of Technology model mainly aims to explain the individual intention to adopt the information or new technology. Mainly four important constructs determine the intention to use. The main constructs are performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions.
Constructs from Literature
New social media platforms and cyberspace are playing a vital role in developing women entrepreneurship because there is an opportunity to handle their business from home (Supreet Juneja Wahee et.al ,2016). They identified social contribution as a factor behind the success of women entrepreneurship. Social contribution can be explained as the benefits gained by society through the setting up of the enterprise. So we can assume that social contribution has a positive effect on Intention to set up a digital start-up.
H1: Social Contribution has a positive effect on Intention to set up digital start-ups.
Attitude is the tendency to respond to a specific idea. Attitude towards ICT has a direct relationship with the adoption of new technology (Kimwele et.al, 2010). Ongori 2009 in his study found that attitude towards ICT has a significant relationship with perceived risk in the adoption of ICT. Digitals start-ups are the sophisticated application of ICT. So we can claim that Attitude towards ICT has a significant impact on Intention to set up digital start-ups.
H2: Attitude towards ICT has a positive effect on Intention to set up a digital star-ups.
Education Level is another important factor that affects the success of women entrepreneurship. Prakash Goyal et.al 2011 found that there is a positive relationship between education level and success of women entrepreneurship. Akanksha Srivastava 2017 also concluded that education has a significant role in developing entrepreneurial traits. Technological know-how also has an impact on developing digital platforms. From the above studies, we can assume that education level has a positive impact on Intention to set up digital start-ups.
H3: Education Level has a significant impact on Intention to set up digital start-ups.
Because of the digital revolution, the world has twisted into a small hamlet. The easy and effective way to enter into the global market is digital marketing. And it will also boost the growth of the start-up a lot. The worldwide access and digital platform allow women entrepreneurs to develop their own corporate space. So we can assume that the global reach of business has a positive impact on Intention to set up a digital startup
H4: Global reach has a positive significant effect on Intention to set up digital start-ups.
Ease of Communication and Promotion
Business communication and promotion is an important factor that affects the growth of the business. But in digital platform business communication and promotion is very easy. The cost-effectiveness of digital promotion techniques also gives a competitive benefit to women entrepreneurship. They are producing business through WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, and many other social media platforms.
H5: Global reach has a positive significant effect on Intention to set up a digital start-up.
A research model was developed after reviewing the well-known models in the area of technology adoption. This model roots in the Unified theory on Acceptance and Use of Technology model and extended it with new constructs. Implication and Conclusion
Digital Start-ups are a recent development in our country and it has huge growth potential in India. Setting up a digital start-up will help women entrepreneurs to enhance their sales because of the various competitive advantages. Most of the literature is concerned with the impact analysis. Nearly all the reviewed studies are based on the survey . The model-based studies are limited in this area. A conceptual model based study is required to understand the Intentions which support women to set up a digital start-up. This model-based study highlights the external factors which affect the intention to develop a digital business platform. This model is a contribution to existing literature. Also, the empirical testing of the Model will initiate further studies in this research area. The findings will help government authorities to draw new women empowerment programs that assist women in digital start-ups.
1. Adeel, M., Khan, N., Naz, H., Raza, S. A., & Fatima, S. (2012). Problems and Prospects of Women Entrepreneurs : A case study of Quetta-Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(23), 177–183.
2. Dhiman, V., & Kumar, S. (2015). Student ’ s viewpoint about smoking and its prohibition at public places. (April), 537–543.
3. Dr.D.M.Neeraja, D. D. M. N., & Padmavathy, D. B. N. (2012). Women Entrepreneurs in India: Problems and Prospects. Global Journal For Research Analysis, 3(8), 1–2. https://doi.org/10.15373/22778160/august2014/209
4. Florian, A., Montero, C. S., & Mbise, E. R. (2017). Mobile technology for women entrepreneurs in Iringa, Tanzania: User requirements and architectural design. 2017 IEEE AFRICON: Science, Technology and Innovation for Africa, AFRICON 2017, 497–503. https://doi.org/10.1109/AFRCON.2017.8095532
5. Goswami, A., & Dutta, S. (2017). E-Commerce Adoption by Women Entrepreneurs in India: An Application of the UTAUT Model. Business and Economic Research, 6(2), 440. https://doi.org/10.5296/ber.v6i2.10560
6. H, A. P. (2018). Digital Startups and Women Entrepreneurship : a Study on Status of Women Entrepreneurs in India. IJRAR- International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews, 5(4), 655–659.
7. Kalyan, P., Singh, S., & Gurusamy, M. (2018). Recent Trends in Women Entrepreneurship. International Journal of Innovative Research in Management Studies (IJIRMS), 3(7), 1–5. Retrieved from www.ijirms.com
8. Kapinga, A. F., Suero Montero, C., & Mbise, E. R. (2019). Mobile marketing application for entrepreneurship development: Codesign with women entrepreneurs in Iringa, Tanzania. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 85(2), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1002/isd2.12073
9. Kimwele, M., Mwangi, W., & Kimani, S. (2011). Information Technology ( IT ) Security Management in Kenyan Small and Medium Enterprises ( SMEs ). International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, 2(1), 517–525.
10. Microbiology, M. P. (2008). Bharathidasan university. Microbiology, (iii), 1–20.
11. Mutisya, C., & Kiai, W. (2016). Factors Influencing Adoption and Use of Mobile Technology Services by Women Entrepreneurs in Machakos County, Kenya. Quest Journals Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Science, 4(11), 2321–9467. Retrieved from www.questjournals.org
12. Nations, U. (2013). UN_A survey on Women Entreprenuership and Innovation. 58. Retrieved from http://www.unctadxi.org/Sections/DITE/empretec/docs/UNCTAD_DIAE_ED_2013_1.pdf
13. Ogrezeanu, A. (2015). Models of technology adoption: An integrative approach. Network Intelligence Studies, 3(05), 55–67.
14. Rahman, S. M. M. (2006). Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Computer Engineering, (July).
15. Smallbone, D., Dabic, M., & Kalantaridis, C. (2017). Migration, entrepreneurship and economic development. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 29(5–6), 567–569. https://doi.org/10.1080/08985626.2017.1315485
16. Srinivasan, N. (2015). Mobile Applications: A Game Changer for Rural Women Entrepreneurs? Unveiling Women’s Leadership: Identity and Meaning of Leadership in India, 126–136. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137547064_11
17. Venkatesh, V., Thong, J. Y. L., & Xu, X. (2016). Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology: A synthesis and the road ahead. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 17(5), 328–376. https://doi.org/10.17705/1jais.00428
18. Wahee, S. J., Garg, V., Gupta, S., & Professor, A. (n.d.). Women Empowerment Through Cyber Entrepreneurship: Implications Through Caselets. 101–110. Retrieved from http://data.conferenceworld.in/IFUNA/P29-38.pdf